The climate and the cultivation of plants
4. Humidity of the air
Each climate has its most appropriate vegetation.
Select plant species that live well in the general climate of your area.
Also, consider the microclimates of the garden. For example, a corner with shade is perfect for ferns but unsuitable for seasonal flower plants.
The climatic-environmental factors in relation to the choice of plants are light, temperatures, rain, humidity and winds.
Analyze the sun areas and the shadow areas of the garden.
For sun areas:
– Almost all flowers need about six hours of sunlight per day. For example, Gazania or Lamprantus only open their flowers if they have direct sun.
– Plants with variegated leaves (veined in green and yellow) require more light than those with full green leaves.
– Cacti like to have lots of light.
For shadow areas:
– Choose species that live well in shade or semi-shade, for example, Camellia, Hydrangea, Clematis, Ferns, Coleo … there are many suitable shadow species; look at this list of bushes.
– You can place in shade plants that need shade at certain times, for example, a temporary shade in hot moments favors its establishment, or when they are young and delicate plants.
If in your climate it is cold, with frequent frosts, it is clear that you should not choose subtropical species: they would die at the first change.
Near a wall, they will be more protected from the cold. The walls accumulate heat during the day that they give way at night.
Certain plants also need cold. For example, the Olive tree grows a lot in the tropics but it does not bloom, what it wants is the alternation of temperatures, not constant all year round. Or many varieties of fruit trees that need to accumulate cold in winter, what are called cold-hours, hours below + 7ºC. For example, cherry varieties that do not have this cold will not give a good harvest (More information on this in Fruit Section, article “Choose fruits according to the climate”).
There are plants that can not stand rainy climates because the soils are very wet or flooded or because the leaves are wet for a long time. They tend to be species of dry climates.
In rainy climates, it is convenient to choose species that love moisture.
4. Humidity of the air
There are plants that need high humidity and other dryness.
Example: Ferns are ideal for a shady garden or garden facing north. They need water and a high degree of humidity in the air. Plant them only if you can give them what they ask for.
There are regions with frequent fog, dew or certain wet corners.
Saline winds from the coast (“burn” the young leaves and young buds oriented to the sea by salt deposits).
If some of these winds predominate in your area, choose plants resistant to them, or, provide wind protection to the garden or terrace with hedges, fences with climbers, sheets of heather, etc.
The wind influences the distribution of plants. For example, place the Conifers thinking where the prevailing winds enter. This will serve as protection thanks to its perennial foliage.